NCERT Solutions Class 9 Civics Chapter 4 PDF Free Download
Get free NCERT solutions for Class 9 social science (Democratic Politics) Chapter 4 – electoral politics. To help students prepare well for their Class 9 CBSE social science exams, the NCERT solutions we provide here consist of important chapter 4 questions. The solutions further contain detailed explanations that our experts have given to clarify the topics and help students understand the concepts easily. They can clear all their doubts and be ready for the exams. The solutions are exclusively based on NCERT (CBSE) guidelines. To give you a brief idea of the chapter, it deals with topics like;
- Reasons for conducting elections.
- Different election-related activities.
- Election Commission of India.
- Electoral malpractices.
- Political Parties.
About the chapter Democratic Politics Electoral Politics
Elections and its Procedures
A procedure by which people choose their representatives at regular intervals is called an election. The people can change the government if they are not satisfied with the working of the government. The Congress party was ruling Haryana since 1982, and at the same time, the opposition leader Choudary Devilal led a Nyaya Yudh movement and formed a new party called ‘Lok Dal’. People supported Lok Dal, and Devilal became the chief minister. Elections are needed to choose the representatives who help the people in solving their problems. In a representative democracy, the voters can choose who their leaders are and form the government.
What makes an election Democratic?
Elections are held in all democratic countries, and some conditions make an election democratic. They are
- Everyone should have one vote, and every vote should have an equal value
- After every few years, elections must be held regularly
- The people elected the candidates.
- Partie and candidates should be free to contest elections
- The voters should be offered some natural choice.
- Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner
Election systems in India
The country is divided into different areas based on the population for election; these areas are called electoral constituencies. Elections are held in all constituencies at the same time. The country is divided into 543 constituencies for the Lok Sabha elections. Some constituencies are reserved for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. In India, every citizen of 18 years of age and above can vote irrespective of caste, sex and creed. The minimum age of 25 years of a person can contest in an election. The election campaign takes place two weeks before the election date.
Get CBSE class 9 democratic politics NCERT solutions for chapter 4 – electoral politics below. These solutions consist of answers to all the critical questions in NCERT book chapter 4.
NCERT Solutions Chapter 4
Democratic Politics Electoral Politics
Question 1: Which of the following sentiments about the reason for conducting elections are false?
- Elections enable people to judge the performance of the government.
- People select the representative of their choice in an election.
- Elections enable people to evaluate the performance of the judiciary
- People can indicate which policies they prefer.
Answer: (c) Elections enable people to evaluate the performance of the judiciary.
Question 2: Which of these is not a good reason to say that Indian elections are democratic?
- India has the most significant number of voters in the world.
- India’s election commission is very powerful.
- In India, everyone above the age of 18 has a right to vote.
- In India, the losing parties accept the electoral verdict.
Answer: (a) India has an enormous number of voters in the world.
Question 3: Match the following
|It is necessary to keep the voters list up to date because||There is a fair representation of all sections of our society|
|Some constituencies are reserved for SCs and STs so that||Everyone has an equal opportunity to elect their representative|
|Everyone has one and only one vote, so that||All candidates must have a fair chance of competing in elections|
|Party in power is not allowed to use government vehicles because||Some people may have moved away from the area where they voted last|
|It is necessary to keep the voters list up to date because||Some people may have moved away from the area where they voted last|
|Some constituencies are reserved for SCs and STs so that||All candidates must have a fair chance of competing in elections|
|Everyone has one and only one vote, so that||Everyone has an equal opportunity to elect their representative|
|Party in power is not allowed to use government vehicles because||All candidates must have a fair chance of competing in elections|
Question 4: List all the different election-related activities mentioned in the chapter and arrange them in a time sequence, beginning with the first activity and ending with the last. Some of these activities are given below:
Releasing election manifestos, Counting of votes, Making of voters’ list, Election campaign, Declaration of election results, Casting of votes, Ordering of re-poll, Announcing election schedule, Filing nomination.
Answer: Different election-related activities:
- a) Making of voters’ list
- b) Announcing election schedule
- c) Filing nomination
- d) Election campaign
- e) Releasing election manifestos
- f) Casting of votes
- g) Counting of votes
- h) Declaration of election results
- i) Ordering of re-poll
Question 5: Surekha is an officer in charge of ensuring free and fair elections in an assembly constituency in a state. Describe what she should focus on for each of the following stages of selection:
- Election campaign
- Polling day
- Counting day.
- Election campaign — During the election campaign, the different political parties hold their meetings, take out their rallies, distribute their manifestos, display their posters and do door-to-door canvassing. Surekha, as an officer-in-charge, should see that the meetings are held within the stipulated time, there are no clashes during the rallies, no party is violating the code of conduct for elections such as wall-postering character assassination of the opponents etc.
- Polling day — On the polling day, the voters go to their nearest polling booths to cast their votes. On this day, she has to see that:
- The polling is done in a peaceful atmosphere.
- No bogus voter casts a vote.
- There is a police arrangement in every booth.
- No unsocial element enters any booth.
- There is no booth capturing or rigging.
- The ballot boxes or electronic machines reach the counting centre safely
.c. Counting day — On the counting day, the agents of almost every candidate take their seats inside the counting centre. Surekha, as an officer-in-charge, has to take care of the following:
- There is a proper seating arrangement for the agents of different candidates.
- Proper police arrangement is there to ward off any undue incident.
- Counting of votes is carried peacefully without any outside interference and to the satisfaction of all the candidates.
- Rejoicing should be peaceful and un-provocative.
Question 6: The table below gives the proportion of different communities among the candidates who won elections to the US Congress. Compare these to the proportion of these communities in the population of the US. Based on this, would you suggest a system of reservations in the US
|communities||The proportion of the Community (in per cent)|
|House of representatives||Population of US|
Answer: 1. The Blacks have fewer seats, i.e. 8, in the House of Representatives compared to their population (13%), so a system of the reservation should be there for them in US Congress.
- In Hispanics’ case, the need for reservation is somewhat more as their number of members in the House of Representatives is far less (5) than their population (13%).
- There is no need for reservation for the Whites as they have already more seats (86) in the House of Representatives than their population (70%).
Question 7: Can we draw the following conclusions from the information given in this chapter? Give two facts to support your position for each of these.
- Election Commission of India does not have enough powers to conduct free and fair elections in the country.
- There is a high level of popular participation in the elections in our country.
- It is effortless for the party in power to win an election. d. Many reforms are needed to make our elections completely free and fair.
Answer: (a) It is wrong to say that the election commission of India does not have enough powers to conduct free and fair elections. Because the Election Commission of India has enough powers to conduct free and fair elections in the country. The Election Commission of India is an independent and influential body.
Firstly, the Election Commissioner of India is appointed by the President or Government of India. He can not be removed. Secondly, the can order Election Commissioner can order the Government to follow specific guidelines. Thirdly, if he feels that the elections have not been conducted fairly, he can call repoll in specific booths or even in the entire constituency. Fourthly, during election duty, other Government servants work under the control of the Election Commissioner.
(b) It is a fact that there is a high level of popular participation in the elections in our country. During the last 50 years or so, the turnout of voters in North America and Europe has declined, while in India, it has either remained stable or increased. In our country, the poor, the illiterate, and the unprivileged people vote in a more significant proportion compared to the rich and the privileged classes.
(c) It is quite a wrong notion that a party in power can win an election quite easily in India. If such a thing would have been confirmed, the Congress stalwart like Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India, would not have been defeated by Raj Narain, an ordinary politician. There are many occasions when the ruling party has lost elections in India.
(d) There is no system as such where can not be a reform and improvement. Reforms are required to prevent the use of money, muscle power, and unfair practices from bearing fruit.
Question 8: Chinappa was convicted for torturing his wife for dowry. Satbir was held guilty of practising untouchability. The court did not allow either of them to contest elections. Does this decision go against the principles of democratic elections?
Answer: In both the cases, Chinappa and Satbir, the court has done the right thing by not allowing either of them to contest elections. This decision does not go against the principle of democratic elections. The convicted and the guilty persons should not be allowed to contest elections; otherwise, they would criminalise the whole election process, which jeopardises the high principles of democracy.
Question 9: Here are some reports of electoral malpractices from different parts of the world. Is there anything that these countries can learn from India to improve their elections? What would you suggest in each case?
(a) During an election in Nigeria, the officer-in-charge of counting votes deliberately increased the votes of one candidate and declared him elected. The court later found out that more than 5 lakh votes cast for one candidate were counted in favour of another.
(b) Just before the elections in Fiji, a pamphlet was distributed warning voters that a vote for former Prime Minister Mahendra Chaudhry will lead to bloodshed. This was a threat to voters of Indian origin.
(c) In the US, each state has its voting method, its procedure of counting and its authority for conducting elections. Authorities in Florida took many controversial decisions that favoured Mr Bush in the Presidential elections in 2000. But no one could change those decisions.
Answer: (a) The officer-in-charge during elections (counting) should have been impartial and ordered repoll. For voting, there should be electronic machines so that no fraud could be done in counting. In the event of the non-availability of electronic machines, the votes should be counted in representatives of different candidates or political parties. Nigeria can learn this lesson from India.
(b) Such a thing is entirely wrong against the spirit of a free and fair election. Firstly, the voters should never be threatened to cast their vote against their conscience. Secondly, if any pamphlet was to be distributed, then it should have been done at least 48 hours before the date of election a done in India. So Fiji can team these lessons from India — not to intimidate the voters, and even if such a thing happens, then the election can be postponed or cancelled.
(c) In India, one and uniform rules are followed in all states as far as the method of voting, the procedure of counting are concerned. Different rules, authorities, and counting procedures lead to ambiguity and vagueness and take away the sense of justice, which is one of the main principles of democracy. The US can take some good points and lessons from India on following the same rules, procedures etc., in all states and across the country.
Question 10: Here are some reports of malpractices in the Indian elections. Identify what the problem in each case is. What should be done to correct the situation?
(a) Following the announcement of elections, the minister promised to provide financial aid to reopen the closed sugar mill.
(b) Opposition parties alleged that their statements and campaign was not given due attention in Doordarshan and All India Radio.
(c) An inquiry by the Election Commission showed that electoral rolls of a state contain names of 20 lakh fake voters.
(d) The hoodlums of a political party were moving with guns, physically preventing supporters of other political parties from meeting the voters and attacking meetings of other parties.
Answer: (a) By doing so, the minister has erred on two counts. Firstly, he should not have made this promise when the announcement of elections has already been made. Secondly, by promising financial aid, he is trying to bribe the voters by using financial tricks. He is trying to take advantage of his party being in power. This mill should not be opened, and it should be left to the winning party to decide after the elections.
(b) To remove this allegation of the opposition parties, the best solution is that Doordarshan and All India Radio must be made autonomous bodies so that government could not influence them in its favour. Equal time should be given to all parties and candidates to present their views in front of them.
(c) The Election Commission has the power to remaking of the electoral rolls and to see that the names of 20 lakh fake voters are removed from the new electoral rolls.
(d) The Election Commission has the power to check this malpractice of moving with guns, physically preventing supporters of other political parties from meeting the voters and attacking meetings of other parties. It can withdraw the recognition of any party or disqualify such a candidate from contesting elections if its supporters are found to be moving with weapons.
Question 11: Ramesh was not in class when this chapter was being taught. He came the next day and reported what he had heard from his father. Can you tell Ramesh what is wrong with these statements?
(a) Women always vote the way men tell them. So what is the point of giving them the right to vote?
(b) Party politics creates tension in society. Elections should be decided by consensus, not by competition.
(c) Only graduates should be allowed to stand as candidates for elections.
Answer: (a) Women always vote the way men tell them to make a wrong statement. It will be undemocratic if we debar women who are about 50 per cent of the population of their right to vote based on gender distinction. It will also take away the quality of accurate representation of democracy. Often we see a husband contesting election from one party while his wife is competing from another party.
(b) A healthy competition provides an option to the people to choose the better. A consensus can make people deaf and dumb, which is against the spirit of democracy. Electoral competition is necessary because it provides incentives to political parties and leaders and forces them to serve the people better.
(c) Educational qualifications are not necessary for all kinds of jobs. It is also a wrong notion that only graduates should be allowed to contest elections. The majority of people who fought for the independence of the country were almost illiterate. They have equal rights with those of the educated to enjoy the fruit of the hard-won autonomy. It is also agreed that if a graduate degree is made eligibility criteria, then more than 90% of the voters would become ineligible for contesting an election. Would that be a democracy, certainly not? India follows the rule — ‘One person, one vote. This is in the true spirit of democracy.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
- What is an election?
Answer: Election is a mechanism by which people could choose their leaders regularly and change them if they wish to do so.
- Who was Choudary Devilal?
Answer: Choudary Devilal was an opposition leader.
- What does ‘EPIC’ stand for?
Answer: ‘EPIC’ stands for Election Photo Identity Card.
- Which party did Chpudary Devilal form?
Answer: He formed a party called ‘Lok Dal’.
- Who is a Member of the Legislative Assembly?
Answer: Each state is divided into a specific number of Assembly constituencies. The elected representative from each constituency is called MLA or Member of Legislative Assembly.
- What is an electoral constituency?
Answer: For election, the country is divided into different areas, and these areas are called electoral constituencies.
- What is a voter’s list?
Answer: It is a list that contains the names of the persons who are eligible to vote.
- What is Universal Adult Franchise?
Answer: Every Indian citizen who is 18 years of age and above has the right to vote irrespective of caste, sex, creed, colour etc. is called Universal Adult Franchise.