NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 12 PDF
Biotechnology is technology that utilizes biological systems and its components to improve or to create new useful products for human-specific use.
Application of Biotechnology
Biotechnology and its applications include a broad spectrum including agriculture, genetically modified organisms, wine production industries, medicines, transgenic organisms, etc. Biotechnology is an emerging field of research as it has the possibility to solve many biological-related problems that could not be solved until now with conventional techniques. Biotechnology has various applications in different fields, including Agriculture, Diagnostics, Energy production, Genetically Modified Crops, Therapeutics, Processing of Food, Waste Management, and a lot more.
|Chapter 12||Biotechnology And Its Application|
The Green Revolution succeeded in tripling the food supply but yet it was not enough to feed the growing human population. Increased yields have partly been due to the use of improved crop varieties, but mainly due to the use of better management practices and use of agrochemicals fertilisers and pesticides.Is there a way to minimise the use of fertilisers and chemicals so that their harmful effects on the environment are reduced? Use of genetically modified crops is a possible solution. Plants, bacteria, fungi and animals whose genes have been altered by manipulation are called Genetically Modified Organisms(GMO).In addition to these uses, GM has been used to create tailor-made plants to supply alternative resources to industries, in the form of starches,fuels and pharmaceuticals.
|Section Number||Topics Covered Name|
|12||Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture|
|12.1||Biotechnological Applications in Medicine|
Pest Resistant Plants,Several nematodes parasitise a wide variety of plants and animals including human beings.A nematode Meloidegyne incognitia infects the roots of tobacco plants and causes a great reduction in yield. A novel strategy was adopted to prevent this infestation which was based on the process of RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi takes place in all eukaryotic organisms as a method of cellular defense. This method involves silencing of a specific mRNA due to a complementary dsRNA molecule that binds to and prevents translation of the mRNA (silencing). The source of this complementary RNA could be from an infection by viruses having RNA genomes or mobile genetic elements (transposons) that replicate via an RNA intermediate.Further, the recombinant therapeutics do not induce unwanted immunological responses as is common in case of similar products isolated from non-human sources.At present, about 30 recombinant therapeutics have been approved for human-use the world over.For more information on NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology, Chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Application, check the solutions given below.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Biotechnology And Its Application
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