NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 13 PDF
Organisms are the living entity which includes bacteria, plants, animals, birds, humans and other living thing existing within an environment and has the ability to adjust, reproduce and possess certain structure and behaviour.The word Population is defined as the group of all the living organisms of the particular species, in a particular geographical area, at a specific time with the capability of interbreeding. Few examples of the population include millions of people living in a Mexico City, teak wood trees in a forest tract, bacteria in a culture plate, etc.The study about the interactions between the organisms and their physical environment is called Ecology.
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Ecology at the organismic level is essentially physiological ecology which tries to understand how different organisms are adapted to their environments in terms of not only survival but also reproduction.You may have learnt in earlier classes how the rotation of our planet around the Sun and the tilt of its axis cause annual variations in the intensity and duration of temperature, resulting in distinct seasons.Regional and local variations within each biome lead to the formation of a wide variety of habitats. Major biomes of India On planet Earth, life exists not just in a few favourable habitats but even in extreme and harsh habitats – scorching Rajasthan desert, rain-soaked Meghalaya forests, deep ocean trenches, torrential streams, permafrost (snow laden) polar regions, high mountain tops, thermal springs, and stinking compost pits, to name a few. Even our intestine is a unique habitat for hundreds of species of microbes.
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|13||Organism and Its Environment|
Water is another the most important factor influencing the life of organisms. In fact, life on earth originated in water and is unsustainable without water. Its availability is so limited in deserts that only special adaptations make it possible for organisms to live there.The productivity and distribution of plants is also heavily dependent on water.You might think that organisms living in oceans,lakes and rivers should not face any water-related problems, but it is not true.Many freshwater animals cannot live for long in sea water and vice versa because of the osmotic problems, they would face.The nature and properties of soil in different places vary; it is dependent on the climate, the weathering process, whether soil is transported or sedimentary and how soil development occurred. Various characteristics of the soil such as soil composition, grain size and aggregation determine the percolation and water holding capacity of the soils. These characteristics along with parameters such as pH, mineral composition and topography determine to a large extent the vegetation in any area.For more information on NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology, Chapter 13 Organisms Populations, check the solutions given below.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Organisms Populations
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