NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 PDF
The reproductive health mainly refers to the conditions in which an individual has a safe and satisfying sex life and has a healthy capability to reproduce. This may also refer to the life cycle approach involving both men and women that affect them from early stages to old age.
|Chapter 4||Reproductive Health|
There are certain disorders or the diseases related to the different reproductive organs. Both male and female have separate reproductive organs with the specialized functions. Reproductive health implies to the disorders in different life stages associated with specific sexual and reproductive health issues. These disorders include menstrual cycle, fertility, pregnancy, sexually transmissible infections, chronic health problems and lot more. There are three essential components of reproductive health and it includes, Family planning, maternal health, and sexual health.
Successful implementation of various action plans to attain reproductive health requires strong infrastructural facilities, professional expertise and material support. These are essential to provide medical assistance and care to people in reproduction-related problem like pregnancy,delivery,STDs,abortions,contraception, menstrual problems,infertility, etc. Implementation of better techniques and new strategies from time to time are also required to provide more efficient care and assistance to people. Statutory ban on amniocentesis a foetal sex determination test based on the chromosomal pattern in the amniotic fluid surrounding the developing embryo for sex-determination to legally check increasing female foeticides, massive child immunisation, etc.,are some programmes that merit mention in this connection.Natural methods work on the principle of avoiding chances of ovum and sperms meeting. Periodic abstinence is one such method in which the couples avoid or abstain from coitus from day 10 to 17 of the menstrual cycle when ovulation could be expected. As chances of fertilisation are very high during this period, it is called the fertile period. Therefore, by abstaining from coitus during this period, conception could be prevented. Withdrawal or coitus interruptus is another method in which the male partner withdraws his penis from the vagina just before ejaculation so as to avoid insemination.
|Section Number||Topics Covered Name|
|4||Reproductive Health – Problems and Strategies|
|4.1||Population Explosion and Birth Control|
|4.2||Medical Termination of Pregnancy|
|4.3||Sexually Transmitted Diseases|
Diseases or infections which are transmitted through sexual intercourse are collectively called sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD) or reproductive tract infections (RTI). Gonorrhoea, syphilis, genital herpes, chlamydiasis, genital warts, trichomoniasis, hepatitis-B and of course, the most discussed infection in the recent years, HIV leading to AIDS are some of the common STDs.Some of these infections like hepatitis–B and HIV can also be transmitted by sharing of injection needles, surgical instruments, etc., with infected persons, transfusion of blood, or from an infected mother to the foetus too. Except for hepatitis-B, genital herpes and HIV infections, other diseases are completely curable if detected early and treated properly. Early symptoms of most of these are minor and include itching, fluid discharge, slight pain, swellings, etc., in the genital region. Infected females may often be asymptomatic and hence, may remain undetected for long. Absence or less significant symptoms in the early stages of infection and the social stigma attached to the STDs, deter the infected persons from going for timely detection and proper treatment. This could lead to complications later, which include pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID), abortions, still births, ectopic pregnancies, infertility or even cancer of the reproductive tract.For more information on NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology, Chapter 4 Reproductive Health, check the solutions given below.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 Reproductive Health
Class 12 Biology Exercises
Question 1: What do you think is the significance of reproductive health in a society?
Solution: Reproductive health refers to healthy reproductive organs with normal functions also it includes physical, emotional, behavioural, and social aspects of reproduction. It helps in preventing various sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, etc., especially those in the adolescent age group. Educating people, about available birth control options, care of pregnant mothers, post-natal care of the mother and child, importance of breast feeding, equal opportunities for the male and the female child, etc., would address the importance of bringing up socially conscious healthy families of desired size. It also helps in reducing social evils like sex-abuse and sex-related crimes, etc. This will help in building a socially responsible and healthy society.
Question 2: Suggest the aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario.
Solution: The aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario are:
- Creating awareness among masses about hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), available contraceptive methods, case of pregnant mothers, adolescence, etc.
- Providing medical assistance and care to people in reproduction-related problems like pregnancy, delivery, STDs, abortions, contraception, menstrual problems, infertility, etc.
Question 3: Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?
Solution: Yes, sex education is necessary in schools to provide right information to the young so as to discourage children from believing in myths and having misconceptions about sex-related aspects. Proper information about reproductive organs, adolescence and related changes, safe and hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), AIDS, etc., would help them to lead a reproductively healthy life.
Question 4: Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years? If yes, mention some such areas of improvement.
Solution: Yes, the reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years. The areas of improvement are:
- Better awareness about sex related matters.
- Increased number of medically assisted deliveries and better post-natal care leading to decreased maternal and infant mortality rates.
- Increased number of couples with small families.
- Better detection and cure of STDs and overall increased medical facilities for all sex-related problems.
Question 5: What are the suggested reasons for population explosion?
Solution: The suggested reason for population explosion are:
- Rapid decline in death rate
- Decline in maternal mortality rate
- Decline in infant mortality rate
- Increase in number of people in reproducible age
Question 6: Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons
Solution: Yes, the use of contraceptives is justified because
- These help in controlling the rapid growth of human population.
- These do not interfere with the sexual desire or sexual act.
- These are also helpful in preventing unwanted pregnancies and controlling STDs.
Question 7: Removal of gonads cannot be considered as a contraceptive option. Why?
Solution: Removal of gonads cannot be considered as a contraceptive option because it will lead to permanent infertility also it will stop the secretions of various important hormones necessary for body.
Question 8: Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary? Comment.
Solution: Yes, the ban is necessary because in our country it is being misused to detect the sex of the child before birth and then aborting if it is a female.
Question 9: Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples to have children.
Solution: Some methods to assist infertile couples to have children are:
- Test tube baby programme: The ova from the wife/donor (female) and sperms from the husband/donor (male) are collected and are induced to form zygote under simulated conditions in the laboratory. Then, zygote produced is then transferred into the fallopian tube of a normal female.
- Gamete Intra fallopian transfer (GIFT): Transfer of an ovum collected from a donor into the fallopian tube of another female who cannot produce ova, but can provide suitable environment for fertilisation.
- Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): A sperm is directly injected into the ovum.
- Artificial insemination (AI): The semen collected either from the husband or a healthy donor is artificially introduced either into the vagina or into the uterus of the female.
Question 10: What are the measures one has to take to prevent from contracting STDs?
Solution: The measures one has to take to prevent from contracting STDs are:
- Avoid sex with unknown partners/multiple partners.
- Always use condoms during coitus.
- In case of doubt, contact a qualified doctor for early detection and get complete treatment if diagnosed with disease.
Question 11: State True/False with explanation
- Abortions could happen spontaneously too. (True/False)
- Infertility is defined as the inability to produce a viable offspring and is always due to abnormalities/defects in the female partner. (True/False)
- Complete lactation could help as a natural method of contraception. (True/False)
- Creating awareness about sex related aspects is an effective method to improve reproductive health of the people. (True/False)
- True, due to some internal factors abortions could happen spontaneously too.
- False, Infertility is defined as the inability of the couple to produce baby even after unprotected sexual co-habitation and it might occur due to abnormalities/defects in either male or female or both.
- False, Complete lactation is a natural method of contraception but it is limited till lactation period, which continues till six months after parturition.
- True, Creating awareness about sex related aspects provides necessary information about reproductive health.
Question 12: Correct the following statements:
- Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.
- All sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable.
- Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the rural women.
- In E.T. techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus.
- Surgical methods of contraception prevent the flow of gamete during intercourse.
- All sexually transmitted diseases are not completely curable.
- Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the urban women.
- In E.T. technique, 8 celled embryos are transferred into the fallopian tube while more than 8 celled embryos are transferred into the uterus.
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