Class 12 Political Science NCERT Solutions Chapter 1 PDF
Class 12 political science for chapter 1 – the cold world era can be accessed or downloaded from the link given below. These solutions are based on the latest syllabus and consist of answers to all the questions given at the end of the chapter.
Some of the important topics covered in this chapter include;
- The ideology behind the cold war.
- Military Alliances.
- India’s foreign policy towards the US and USSR.
- NAM or non-aligned movement.
This chapter provides a backdrop to the entire book. The end of the Cold War is usually seen as the beginning of the contemporary era in world politics which is the subject matter of this book. It is, therefore, appropriate that we begin the story with a discussion of the Cold War. The chapter shows how the dominance of two superpowers, the United States of America and the Soviet Union, was central to the Cold War. It tracks the various arenas of the Cold War in different parts of the world. The chapter views the NonAligned Movement (NAM) as a challenge to the dominance of the two superpowers and describes the attempts by the non-aligned countries to establish a New International Economic Order (NIEO) as a means of attaining economic development and political independence. It concludes with an assessment of India’s role in NAM and asks how successful the policy of nonalignment has been in protecting India’s interests.
|Chapter 1||The Cold War Era|
Students can access free NCERT solutions for class 12 political science (Part A – contemporary world politics) chapter 1 – the cold world era here. Get answers to all the important questions found in the textbook and with these solutions,class 12 political science chapter 1 students can understand clearly. Our experts have also provided detailed explanations to make the chapter easier and students will get a good idea about the important topics in this chapter and prepare well for the exams. With these solutions, students can have an effective revision before the exam and at the same time obtain higher grades.
|Section Number||Topics Covered Name|
|1.1||Cuban Missile Crisis|
|1.2||What Is The Cold War?|
|1.3||The Emergence Of Two Power Blocs|
|1.4||Arenas Of The Cold War|
|1.5||Challenge To Bipolarity|
|1.6||New International Economic Order|
|1.7||India And The Cold War|
What Is The Cold War?
The end of the Second World War is a landmark in contemporary world politics. In 1945,the Allied Forces, led by the US, Soviet Union, Britain and France defeated the Axis Powers led by Germany, Italy and Japan, ending the Second World War (1939-1945).The war had involved almost all the major powers of the world and spread out to regions outside Europe including Southeast Asia, China, Burma(now Myanmar) and parts of India’s northeast. The war devastated the world in terms of loss of human lives and civilian property. The First World War had earlier shaken the world between 1914 and 1918.The end of the Second World War was also the beginning of the Cold War. The world war ended when the United States dropped two atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, causing Japan to surrender. Critics of the US decision to drop the bombs have argued that the US knew that Japan was about to surrender and that it was unnecessary to drop the bombs.They suggest that the US action was intended to stop the Soviet Union from making military and political gains in Asia and elsewhere and to show Moscow that the United States was supreme. US supporters have argued that the dropping of the atomic bombs was necessary to end the war quickly and to stop further loss of American and Allied lives. Whatever the motives, the consequence of the end of the Second World War was the rise of two new powers on the global stage. With the defeat of Germany and Japan, the devastation of Europe and in many other parts of the world, the United States and the Soviet Union became the greatest powers in the world with the ability to influence events anywhere on earth.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 The Cold World Era
Class 12 Political Science Exercises
1. Which among the following statements about the Cold War is wrong?
(а) It was a competition between the US and Soviet Union and their respective allies.
(b) It was an ideological war between the superpowers.
(c) It triggered off an arms race.
(d) The US and USSR were engaged in direct wars.
Ans: (d) The US and USSR were engaged in direct wars.
2. Which among the following statements does not reflect the objectives of NAM?
(a) Enabling newly decolonised countries to pursue independent policies.
(b) No to joining any military alliances.
(c) Following a policy of neutrality on global issues.
(d) Focus on elimination of global economic inequalities.
Ans:(c) Following a policy of neutrality on global issues.
3. Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements that describe the features ol Tliitary alliances formed by the superpowers.
(a) Member countries of the alliance are to provide bases in their respective lands for superpowers.
(b) Member countries to support the superpower both in terms of ideology and military strategy.
(c) When a nation attacks any member country, it is considered as an attack on all the member countries.
(d) Superpowers assist all the member countries to develop their own nuclear weapons.
Ans: (a) True (6) True (c) True (d) False
4. Here is a list of countries. Write against each of these blocs they belonged to during the Cold War.
Ans: (a) Poland—Eastern Alliance (Warsaw Pact)
(b) France—Western Alliance (NATO)
(c) Japan—Western Alliance (NATO)
(e) North Korea—Eastern Alliance (Warsaw Pact)
(f) Sri Lanka—NAM
5. For what reason did the superpowers have military collusions with more modest nations? Give three reasons.
Ans: Superpowers had military collusions with more modest states who were useful for them in accessing:
1. Indispensable assets as oil and minerals.
2. Domain from where the superpowers could dispatch their weapons and troops.
3. Areas from where they could keep an eye on one another.
4. Financial help to pay their tactical costs.
6.Some of the time it is said that the Cold War was a basic battle for power and that philosophy steered clear of it. Do you concur with this? Give one guide to help your position.
Ans:Yes, the Cold War was a straightforward battle for power and that philosophy steered clear of this is on the grounds that:
1. The Cold War prompted a few shooting wars yet this didn’t prompt a whole new World War.
2. In spite of head-to-head conflicts in Korea (1950-53), Berlin (1958-62), the Congo (mid 1960s), neither union framework crossed certain cutoff points.
3. Many lives have been lost in a portion of the fields like Korea, Vietnam and Afghanistan yet World War spread an atomic conflict or worldwide threats.
7.What was India’s international strategy towards the USandUSSR during the Cold War time? Do you believe that this strategy helped India’s inclinations?
Ans: India’s international strategy towards the US and USSR was two crease:
1. Removed specific consideration in organizing from the two coalitions.
2. Raised voice against the recently decolonised nations turning out to be important for these coalitions.
3. In addition, India attempted to decrease the distinctions and contentions between these coalitions from growing into a full scale war.
Indeed, this strategy served India’s inclinations moreover:
1. Non-arrangement permitted India to take worldwide choices that served India’s inclinations as opposed to interests of superpowers and its partners.
2. India kept a harmony between two superpowers as though India felt overlooked by one superpower it could shift towards different superpowers.
3. Neither the partnership could underestimate India.
8.What do you th nk about the statement that NAM has bdcoPie irrelevant today? Give reasons to support your opinion.
Ans: By the mid 1970s, NAM had become an economic pressure group and by late 1980s, the NIEO initiative had faded due to stiff competition from developed countries who acted as a united group while non-aligned countries struggled to maintain their unity in face of this opposition. Non-alignment both as an international movement and as a core of India’s foreign policy lost some of its earlier relevance. Though non-alignment contained some core values and enduring ideas. It was based on a recognition that decolonised states shared a historical affiliation and can become powerful force if they come together, as very small and poor countries need not to become follower of any big powers instead they could persue an independent foreign policy also.In nutshell, it can be concluded that NAM has not lost its relevance. It has stood test of adverse circumstances. It has served an important purpose of protecting and preserving interests of third world countries.