NCERT Solutions Class 9 Geography Chapter 2 PDF
Free NCERT solutions for class 9 social science (Geography) Chapter 2 – physical features of India are provided here to helps students study effectively and score better grades in exams. The solutions consist of important chapter questions and detailed answers are also provided to help students understand the concepts clearly and in-depth. With our NCERT solutions, students will be able to clear all their doubts and ultimately conduct all the revisions before the exams. This chapters important topics are more or less, NCERT solutions for class 9 geography chapter 2. It will enable the students to understand the chapter entirely and allow them to solve question answers independently. class 9 geography chapter 2 solutions PDF free download was designed by expert teachers from the latest edition of NCERT books to get good marks on board exams. We recommend you to study the physical features of India notes class 9. The solutions have been prepared keeping in mind the latest NCERT (CBSE) guidelines as well. Chapter 2 basically deals with topics like;
- The major physiographic divisions of India.
- The Himalayas, Western and Eastern Ghats, desert, peninsula, coastal and northern plains.
- Island groups of India.
- Converging and Diverging Tectonic plates.
- Bhabar, Bhangar and Khadar.
Get CBSE class 9 geography NCERT solutions for chapter 2 – physical features of India below.
NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Geography Chapter 2 – Physical Features Of India
Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) A landmass bounded by the sea on three sides is referred to as
(a) Coast (b) Peninsula (c) Island (d) None of the above
(ii) Mountain ranges in the eastern part of India forming its boundary with Myanmar are collectively called
(a) Himachal (b) Purvachal (c) Uttarakhand (d) None of the above
Answer: (b) Purvachal
(iii) The western coastal strip, south of Goa is referred to as
(a) Coromandel (b) Kannad (c) Konkan (d) Northern Circar
Answer: (b) Kannad
(iv) The highest peak in the Eastern Ghats is
(a) Anai Mudi (b) Mahendragiri (c) Kanchenjunga (d) Khasi
Answer: (a) Anai Mudi
Answer the following questions briefly:
(i) What are tectonic plates?
(ii) Which continents of today were parts of the Gondwana land?
(iii) What is bhabar?
(iv) Name the three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south.
(v) Which plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhyan ranges?
(vi) Name the island group of India having a coral origin.
(i) Due to the internal heat of the earth, the currents of the semi-molten rocks begin to move towards the crust and tear it apart dividing it into large fragments called lithospheric or tectonic plates. There are seven such major plates namely, South America, North America, Pacific, Indo—Australian, Eurasian, African and Antarctic.
(ii) Gondwana land is the name given to the hypothetical ‘super-continent’ located in the Southern hemisphere. Gondwana Land included South America, part of Africa (South Africa including Madagascar), part of Asia (India, Arabia, Malaya), Australia and Antarctica, prior to its break-up under the forces causing continental-drift.
(iii) The Thabar’ is that narrow belt of the plain that is covered with pebbles and lies along the foothills of the Shivalik from the Indus to the Teesta. This belt is laid down by numerous streams descending down the hills.
(iv) The three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south are:
a) The northernmost range is known as the great Himalayas or Inner Himalayas or the Himadri.
b) The range lying to the south of the Himadri which is known as Himachal or the lesser Himalaya.
c) The outermost range of the Himalayas is known as the Shiwaliks. These are the foothill ranges and represent the southernmost division of the Himalayas.
(v) Malwa plateau or Central Highland
(i) Converging and diverging tectonic plates.
(ii)Bhangar and Khadar
(iii) the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.
(i) The internal heat of the earth makes the molten rocks to rush towards the surface of the earth and drive the crust into large fragments known as “Tectonic Plates”. These plates are drifting oven the mantle of the earth. As a result, when the two or more plates are pushed towards each other they are called ‘Converging Plates’. On the other hand, if they are moving away from each other, they are called ‘Diverging Plates’.
(ii) According to the age of the soils of the Northern Plain they have been differentiated by two names:
(a) Bhangar and (b) Khadar. The difference between these two are mentioned below:
a) Bhangar – These are the older alluvium or old soil and form the largest pan of the Northern Plains. They lie above the flood plains of the rivers and present a terrace-like structure. It often contains Kankar nodules made of calcareous deposits.
b) Khadar – The newer and younger deposits of the flood plains are known as `Khadar’. So, these are the new alluvium or new soil and are very fertile. Thus, Khadar is ideal for intensive agriculture.
|Western Ghats||Eastern Ghats|
|I. The Western Ghats are situated and mark||
I. The Eastern Ghats arc situated and mark the western edges of Deccan Plateau parallel the eastern edges of Deccan Plateau parallel to the western coasts of India along the to the eastern coasts of India along the Bay Arabian Sea. of Bengal.
|2. Continuous, can be crossed through the passes only.||
2. Discontinuous, irregular and dissected by passes only. rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal.
|3. The Western Ghats are higher than the eastern ghats Average elevation is 900 – 1600 meters.||
3. Average elevation is 600 meters.
|4. The height increases progressively from north to south. The highest peaks include the Anai Mudi, the Doda Belta.||
4.The highest peaks include the Mahendragiri, the Javadi Hills.
|5. The Western Ghats enclose a narrow strip between its western slopes and the Arabian Sea which is known as Western Coastal Plain. Its maximum width is 64 km.||
5.The Eastern Ghats also enclose a strip of land between its eastern slopes and the By of Bengal which is known as the Eastern Coastal Plain. It is wider than the Western Coastal strip with its maximum breadth of 120km.
|6. It experiences orographic rain mostly in summer due to the summer monsoons. The climate is hot and moist.||
6. It receives rain both in summer and winter, especially in winter through winter monsoons. However, here the rain is lesser than on the western strip.
|7. Here the soil is highly fertile. Rice, spices, rubber and fruits like coconuts, cashew nuts etc. are grown here.||
7. The soil is not as fertile as the western strip. Rice, groundnuts, cotton, tobacco, coconuts etc. are grown here.
Describe how the Himalayas were formed.
The Indian Peninsula drifted towards the north and finally collided with the much larger Eurasian Plate. As a result of this collision, the sedimentary rocks which were accumulated in the geosynclines (known as Tethys) got folded and formed the mountain systems of West Asia and the Himalaya.
Which are the major physiographic divisions of India? Contrast the relief of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular plateau.
The major physiographic divisions of India are the following:
a) The Himalayan Mountain Wall of the north.
b) The Northern Plains.
c) The Peninsular Plateau.
d) The Indian Dessert.
e) The Coastal Plains.
f) The Islands.
The following table compares and contrasts the relief of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular plateau.
|I. The Himalayas are young fold mountains of comparatively recent origin.||
I. They are a pan of the oldest structures of the Indian subcontinent.
|2. They are the highest mountains in the world.||
2. The Central Highlands are funned of low hills and there is no high peak of world-wide fame in these
|3. Many great rivers like – the Indus, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra originate from the Himalayas.||
3. Very few rivers like – the Narmada and the Tapti originate from these hills.
|4. The Himalayas are formed of the sedimentary rocks.||
4. The Central Highlands are formed of igneous and metamorphic rocks.
|5. They are formed at the edge of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.||
5. They are formed at the edge of the Deccan Plateau.
|6. Important hill stations like – Shimla. Mussoorie, Darjeeling, Nainital are found on the Himalayas.||
6. No well known hill station is found here.
Give an account of the Northern Plains of India.
The Great Northern Plain extends from the Punjab Plain in the west to the Brahmaputra valley in the east. The Northern Plain has been formed by the interplay of the three major river systems namely – the Indus, the Gana and the Brahmaputra along with their tributaries. The deposition of alluvium in a vast basin lying at the foothills to the south of the Himalayas over millions of years formed this fertile plain. It spreads over an area of 7 lakh square km. The plain is about 2400 km long and 240 – 320 km broad. The rich soil cover combined with the abundant water supply and favourable climate made this agriculturally a very productive part of India. Because of this factor, the density of population is also the highest in this region among all the physiographic divisions of India. The Northern Plain is broadly divided into three sections:
a) The Punjab Plain – It is the western part of the Northern Plain formed by the Indus and its tributaries. This section is dominated by the Doabs.
b) The Ganga Plain – It is the largest part of the Northern Plain and extends between Ghaggar and Teesta rivers.
c) The Brahmaputra Plain – It forms the eastern part of the Northern Plain by the river Brahmaputra and its tributaries. It is narrower than the Ganga Plain and is a flood-prone area.
In the south-east side of the Northern Plain lays the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta which is the largest delta of the world.
Write short notes on the following.
(i) The Indian Desert
(ii) The Central Highlands
(i) The Indian Desert – It is an important physiographic division of India. Some of its features are as follows:
a) It covers almost the whole of Rajasthan state.
b) It lies towards the western margins of the Aravali Hills
c) Its vast expanse is covered with sand dunes which shape day in and day out.
d) This region receives very little rainfall which is below 150 mm so; there are very few streams in this area.
e) It has an arid climate with very little vegetation.
f)During the rainy season, small streams are sometimes seen for a short-while which disappears again in the sand after the rains are over.
g) Luni is the only large river in this area.
h) Crescent shape dunes which are called Barchans are a prominent feature of the Indian desert.
i) Camel is the most important animal of this desert.
(ii) The Central Highlands – The northern division of the Peninsular Plateau lying to the north of the Narmada River covering a major area of the Malwa Plateau is known as the Central Highlands. The Vindhayas and its eastern extensions divide the Central Highlands from the Deccan Plateau on the southern side. In its west lies the rocky desert of Rajasthan, in the north-west, it is bounded by the Aravalis, in the north lays the Gangetic Plain and in the east, it is surrounded by part of UP and south Bihar. Most part of the Central Highlands consists of the Malwa Plateau and the Chhotanagpur Plateau. The eastward extensions are known as the Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand.